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Cover Story

Deafening Noise

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Sep 30, 2011 | From the print edition

Constant exposure to noise can make one deaf. The major culprit is road traffic. Can one avoid noise? It’s difficult. Checking it, however, is not impossible. As the Central Pollution Control Board regulations remain unimplemented, the authority has initiated a nationwide real time noise monitoring, hoping for an improvement. Sayantan Bera in Kolkata, Ankur Paliwal in Delhi and Sumana Narayanan in Chennai report on the increasing noise levels

noise

Ask Priyabrata Kanjilal, a grocery store owner in one of the bylanes of south Kolkata, for a Vim washing bar. Chances are he will produce an egg (dim in Bengali), for he cannot distinguish between the two words. Twenty years at the store has taken a toll on his hearing ability. During his eight hours at the store it’s not the good old radio that he listens to, but the steady groan of traffic on the 4.5-metre alley. Impatient honks and noise of trucks, buses, autorickshaws, cars and bikes are a constant. The 50-year-old is also a captive listener of the many religious, social and political processions that often pass through the road, all expressing their emotions through blaring loudspeakers.

At home his family complains he talks too loudly and turns volume of the television too high. He gets angry easily, suffers from sleep disturbance, recurring headaches and occasional vertigo.

How noise impacts hearing
 
  A bed of grass, trampled by a morning walker, straightens up in a while. But after a few days of regular walking, it withers and dies. Loud sound or noise does something similar to the ear. Death of a hair cell is permanent. When too many of them die, one would require a hearing aid.

Sound travels in mechanical vibrations through the external auditory canal and reaches cochlea, the auditory portion of inner ear. Each cochlea has 18,000 hair cells, so small that all of them can fit on a pinhead. It is the job of these extremely delicate and sensitive hair cells to transform the mechanical energy of the vibrating sound waves to a nervous impulse which, in turn, is processed by the human brain. Thus we hear—the rustling of leaves, whispers, cries and conversations, the rhythmic beats inside a night club, or the painful orchestra of a hundred honks on a choked highway.

 
 
 

On the insistence of Down To Earth, Kanjilal underwent a pure tone audiometry. This simple test is done in a sound-proof room where the patient is made to hear sounds of different frequencies. The audiologist increases the sound until it becomes audible to the patient.

A normal human being can hear a 4,000-hertz tone at 20 decibels. Kanjilal could hear it at 50 and 55 decibels in his right and left ears respectively. His hearing loss is more pronounced at higher frequencies, suggesting a case of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). It is scientifically taken that NIHL affects higher frequencies first.

Kanjilal’s loss is irreversible. Continuous exposure to noise will gently kill all the tiny hair cells inside his cochlea, the auditory portion of the inner ear (see ‘How noise impacts hearing’ on p30). “Avoid noise,” recommends his medical report. But he cannot stop going to his shop.

“As a society, our tolerance to noise is phenomenal. We seldom mind loud music, honk indiscriminately, and while working in heavy industries rarely ask our employers to give us protective devices,” says Somnath Mukherjee, audiologist at Apollo Hospital in Kolkata.

This, despite Kolkata being the first city in India to legislate on noise. Taking up noise as a subject that needs to be urgently addressed, Calcutta High Court judge Bhagabati Prosad Banerjee has passed some pioneering judgements. These were also inspired by the writings of Narayan Ganguly, a Bengali author.

imageIn November 1970, the ailing author wrote in his satirical column, Sunondo’s Journal, for a literary magazine: “Even today, there was no respite from the demonic duet of loud music and firecrackers. Perhaps I still have a few days left to eat and breathe, so I haven’t had a heart attack yet…. Heard there is some law regarding amplifiers, but that must be a rumour.” The column, published after Ganguly’s death, left a deep impression on Justice Banerjee. “I started reading on noise pollution after his death—the legal and regulatory history around the world. And then I actually waited for a case,” he says with a smile.

In 1996, Om Birangana Religious Society filed a petition in the Calcutta High Court complaining the police was stopping it from using microphones to play religious songs. A few months later, Justice Banerjee pronounced a landmark judgement. “Freedom of speech and expression includes, by necessary implication, freedom not to listen and/or to remain silent… One cannot exercise his right at the cost of and in total deprivation of others’ rights,” he ordered.

For the first time in India use of microphones was banned during night hours—from 9 pm to 7 am.

image“During my tenure, I disposed of noise-related cases regarding violation of court orders every Friday. I also directed the police and the West Bengal Pollution Control Board (WBPCB) to register the complaints anonymously. This encouraged people to lodge complaints,” Justice Banerjee says. His orders helped Kolkata become a better monitored place. The city has improved. WBPCB data shows a drop of about 10 decibels from 1994 to 2009. But it is not enough when the noise level is compared to the ambient noise standards.

Painful noise

The impact of rise in noise level is visible countrywide. According to a 2007 world health organization (WHO) estimate, almost six per cent people in India suffer from hearing loss. This, when hearing loss is not monitored regularly in the country.

imageA human ear can detect the rustle of leaves at 10 decibels, hear a conversation at 60 decibels and even sustain the constant rhythmic thudding noise inside a night club at 110 decibels. Sound becomes painful as it reaches 120 decibels. Chronic exposure to sound beyond 85 decibels for eight hours can cause irreversible hearing loss. A 140-decibel sound impulse next to the ear can tear the eardrum.

Every increase of 10 decibels makes the sound twice as loud to the human ear. For every three decibel increase in sound after 85 decibels, the safe exposure time gets reduced by half. For instance, if 85 decibels is safe for eight hours, 88 decibels will be safe only for four hours.

About 120 decibels sound is safe only for seven seconds. Wondering how then disc jockeys survive? Well, they wear ear plugs as precaution.

AddThis

I regularly read Down To Earth. Thank you for this immensely educative article.

The problem is: No ministry or public authority is looking at proactively reducing noise levels by putting up sound barriers around highways, railway lines etc.

I live in Mumbai, Borivli, in a relatively quiet neighbourhood near the Western Express Highway.

A number of high-rise apartment blocks have been built alongside this extremely noisy highway, and all the flats facing the highway -- right upto the 30th or 40th floor, are constantly bombarded with a steady roar of traffic noise. We recently considered buying a house on the 18th floor, but we didn't, because I couldn't stand the steady bass noise, even at a distance of over a kilometre from the highway as the crow flies. And this noise was very disturbing, even through two layers of glass.

I have experienced that Bass noise travels through the entire structure as vibrations, and is conveyed to us even through the seats on which we sit and the beds on which we sleep. I shudder at the thought of my family living in such conditions 24x7. It would be extremely disturbing mentally, and exhausting physically.

But I am continually amazed to see large numbers of educated and seemingly intelligent families buying such houses and paying over1.2 crores for them. Apart from hearing loss, it must be causing psychiatric disorders and aggravating pre-existing medical conditions such as heart disease!

Warm Regards,
Krishnaraj Rao
98215 88114

18 September 2011
Posted by
Krishnaraj Rao

I live in Himachal Pradesh. we call our state Devbhumi. Here one can find temples in plenty and on every temple top one can notice a loudspeaker meant to torture people by playing 2nd grade Bhajans at full pitch witout caring for the ones who lives nearby.

During navratras(The 9 holy days) the season of Jagrans continue for 9 days and all the laws are flouted. Cheap singers keep on chanting the Bhajans based on famous filmi songs at full pitch and no body dares to stop them not even the police who may be present in the pandal for keeping law and order.

If someone objects to this violation of law he/she is treated as a traitor. but to stop this menace one must be ready to be a taitor even.

Thanks for such an eye opener article and hope the people will now understand the menace called noise pollution.

20 September 2011
Posted by
samaresh lohia

15 years of living in Bangalore I suspect I have mild hearing loss. While travelling by public transport, women are seated in the front of the bus - close to the noisy engine and horn. I wonder if this layout aggravated it.

I have now moved to a rural area - but even here the sound of internal combustion engines is ubiquitous - brush cutters, tipper trucks, and tourists - who come to enjoy the quiet countryside but insist on playing their favourite music loudly in their vehicles. The weekends are the noisiest.

21 September 2011
Posted by
SP

stories about himachal,bangalore and chennai ,mumbai are sober versions. u can not imagine the condition of kolkata. its beyond all limits. no body bothers here. its intrinsic to its loud culture.its lack of confidence,restlessness,anxiety,sense of left behind,crudeness of civil society. the all great stories of 'culture capital' are myth,blindfaith,hankering on past laurels (contested always)...
HONKING apart from LYNCHING are two things which keeps kolkata apart from all civilised places.it has a social sanctity by people,politics,administration,police ,law and even culture including singing...
its a living hell on these matrix.people don't respect private space. all this is done and passed in the name of 'para culture' sarbajanin..vibrant and throbbing SAMAJIKATA...

30 September 2011
Posted by
vijay sharma

Excelent article indeed. SOUND CURFEW during night hours is VERY NECESSARY and that is possible only when laws are enacted properly. How many of us know that there can not be loudspeaker in open places (even in lowest volume) between 10 p.m. and 6 a.m? How many people know that you can't blow even the Scooter horn during the night hours? How many police officers in India have imposed IPC 268, 290 and 291 apart from the Environment Protection Act-1986 against Noise Pollution.
Well, Varanasi is an exception where almost all the police stations are active on this front & even the religious places have faced the heat from police & law. Not one, but numerous cases have been registered against marriage lawns, D.J. people, Band people and people can get their neighbor's noisy generators silenced in 15 working days. We at Satya Foundation started this campaign on 10th February 2008 and with active participation of people and media, the police & administration have taken up noise control on top priority. But still a long way to go... Chetan Upadhyaya, Founder Secretary, Satya Foundation 09212735622

13 July 2012
Posted by
Chetan Upadhyaya

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