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Drug resistance: treatable diseases have once again turned fatal, says WHO

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Date:Apr 30, 2014

Data from 114 countries show spread of the major public health threat; global collaboration needed for targeted solutions, says global health agency

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Antimicrobial resistance is no longer a prediction for the future, it is happening right now in every region of the world and has the potential to affect anyone, of any age, in any country. The World Health Organization, in a report released Wednesday, says that antimicrobial resistance is now a major threat to public health.

The report provides a comprehensive picture of drug resistance around the world and incorporates data from 114 countries. The report kick-starts WHO's effort to address drug resistance. The organisation hopes to help members develop tools and standards, initiate a global collaboration to track drug resistance, measure health and economic impacts of antibiotic resistance and design targeted solutions.

At the release of the report, Keiji Fukuda, the UN agency's assistant director-general for health security, said:

“Without urgent, coordinated action by many stakeholders, the world is headed for a post-antibiotic era, in which common infections and minor injuries which have been treatable for decades can once again kill”. Antibiotic resistance causes people to be sick for longer periods and increases the risk of death.

Common infections turn deadly
The report notes that resistance is occurring across many different infectious agents but the report focuses on antibiotic resistance in seven different bacteria responsible for common, serious diseases such as bloodstream infections (sepsis), diarrhoea, pneumonia, urinary tract infections and gonorrhoea.

The report reveals that common intestinal bacteria, Klebsiella pneumoniae, is resistant to carbapenem antibiotics across the world. This bacterium is the major cause of hospital-acquired infections such as pneumonia, bloodstream infections, infections in newborns and intensive-care unit patients (see table).

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People suffering from urinary tract infections caused by E coli are also at risk now as the pathogen is now resistant to fluoroquinolones. Sexually transmitted disease, gonorrhoea is resistant to third generation cephalosporins in Austria, Australia, Canada, France, Japan, Norway, Slovenia, South Africa, Sweden and the United Kingdom.

Back to basics 
The report identifies gaps in the basic systems to track and monitor the problem as the main cause of the spread of antibiotic resistance. The agency suggests that efforts to prevent infections from happening in the first place are important. These include better hygiene, access to clean water, infection control in health-care facilities, and vaccination.

 

AddThis

Dear All,
By treating drinking water by UV light, are we increasing the problem by creating some antibiotic resistant Bacteria etc.? People are advised to use UV lamps for drinking water treatment, assuming that the exposure to UV light kills bacteria and viruses.

But some experts think that rather than killing, it might initiate the further multiplication even, due to mutation effect. Based on that, few researchers are scared to think that rather than making our water safe we may be adding several types of mutated bacteria and virus to our system. These microorganisms are supposed to be of unknown nature and they may be more dangerous than the ones we are trying to get rid of and much more resistant to what we know of controlling them.

With regards to all, I would like to put forward the following points of concern in connection with UV treatment of drinking water.

Is there any scope that UV treatment alters the structure of DNA of some microbes eventually leading to production of some mutated forms, which are much more resistant to antibiotics? Is it established that after alteration of DNA, the replication is prevented anyway?

Because, the mutation or the alteration of DNA structure can easily lead one bacteria strain to another through horizontal gene transfer. If a bacteria strain carries the NDM-1 gene, which stands for New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1, it becomes resistant to antibiotics. The NDM-1 gene makes the bacterium produce an enzyme which neutralizes the activity of antibiotics.

The gene mutation, NDM-1 has already been identified in few distinct bacterial species, including those that cause cholera and dysentery.

So if mutated bacteria strain contains NDM-1, there is a serious health risk from dangerous infections, which may rapidly transfer through drinking water. This makes an urgent matter of concern for public health.
Thanks and Regards.
Nripendra Kumar Sarma
Nagaon, Assam, India

1 May 2014
Posted by
Nripendra Kr Sarma

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