2016 was a great year for renewable energy, especially for power generation: REN21

Friday 09 June 2017

Out of the total capacity added in 2016, 62 per cent of it was from renewable sources


                    In 2016, most of the new RE capacity was installed in developing countries, mostly in China. Credit: BlackRockSolar / Flickr
In 2016, most of the new RE capacity was installed in developing countries, mostly in China. Credit: BlackRockSolar / Flickr
Quick Read
  • The world is adding more renewable power capacity each year than it adds in new capacity from all fossil fuels combined
  • Decline in costs has made cost of solar PV competitive with conventional sources of power in some countries
  • The renewable energy sector employed 9.8 million people in 2016, an increase of 1.1 per cent over 2015
  • Despite many positive trends in renewable energy sector, it is not transitioning at a pace needed to meet the targets committed in the Paris Accord

The Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century (REN21), a global renewable energy multi-stakeholder policy network, published its Renewables 2017 Global Status Report (GSR) in Beijing, China this week. This yearly publication provides comprehensive overview of the renewable energy (RE) sector and market covering power, heating and cooling and transportation sectors.

RE contributed to an estimated 19.3 per cent of global energy consumption. Most of the new RE capacity was installed in developing countries, mostly in China. In fact, China has been the largest developer of RE in power and heat sector over the past eight years. However, the share of bio-energy in total primary energy consumption has remained more or less the same as 2005, despite a 21 per cent rise in overall energy demand over the last 10 years.

 

Power sector

RE installed capacity saw its largest annual increase (161 gigawatts) in 2016 of. Compared to 2015, the global capacity increased by almost 9 per cent to almost 2,017 GW at the end of 2016 as compared to 1,849 GW in 2015. Investment in RE was almost double the investment in fossil fuels and added to US$ 249.8 billion in 2016. This means, world installed more RE power capacity annually than the combined capacities of all fossil fuels.–

Out of the total capacity added in 2016, 62 per cent of it was from renewable sources. Arthouros Zervos, Chair of REN21, said in their press release, “The world is adding more renewable power capacity each year than it adds in new capacity from all fossil fuels combined. As the share of renewables grows we will need investment in infrastructure as well as a comprehensive set of tools: integrated and interconnected transmission and distribution networks, measures to balance supply and demand, sector coupling (for example the integration of power and transport networks); and deployment of a wide range of enabling technologies.”

China is the leader in the world in terms of installed capacities of hydropower, wind power and solar PV. When compared with 2015, the installations of solar PV increased by 45 per cent, making a capacity addition of more than 34 GW. Outside China, most of the renewable power generated in Asia is from hydropower, but its share is relatively decreasing as compared to other renewable power technologies, especially solar PV.

Developments in renewable energy sector

  • Declining costs of solar and wind

In 2016, total 75 GW of solar PV was added worldwide, taking the global solar PV capacity to 303 GW. This tremendous growth was brought forth because of record price reductions for modules, inverters and structures. There were unprecedented lower bids for wind in Chile, India, Mexico and Morocco. Off-shore wind also saw decline in costs in tenders in Denmark and Netherlands.

The decline in costs has made cost of solar PV competitive with conventional sources of power in some countries. It is a good sign for the renewable sector, however; the sector is still vulnerable to policy changes as some countries like the United States are still trying to protect fossil fuel industry. On the other hand, these low bids have raised questions whether these projects will be financially viable or will these projects ever reach completion.

  • 100 per cent renewable target

Many cities, states, countries and other corporations have stated their commitment to meet 100 per cent renewable energy targets not just because of the climate and environmental requirements, but also because it makes more financial and business sense. At COP22 in Marrakesh, Morocco in November 2016, the leaders of 48 developing nations committed to work towards achieving 100 per cent renewable energy supply in their respective nations.

  • Decentralised solutions for access to electricity

The process of providing electricity access through grid extension alone is taking back seat in countries across the globe as new business models have facilitated the development of off-grid and mini-grid markets.

  •  Jobs created 

The renewable energy sector employed 9.8 million people in 2016, an increase of 1.1 per cent over 2015. In terms of technology, solar PV and bio-fuels provided the largest numbers of jobs. Employment shifted further towards Asia, which accounted for 62 per cent of all renewable energy jobs (not including large-scale hydropower), led by China.

Heating and Cooling

Renewable energy contributed only nine percent to the total global heat demand. In 2016, majority of renewable heat continued to be supplied by biomass, with smaller contributions from solar thermal and geothermal energy. Solar was used in process heating in beverage as well as mining industry. District heating systems started using solar thermal energy for larger installations since the heat also provided flexibility to electricity systems by storing thermal energy.

Transport

Liquid bio-fuels provided around four per cent of world road transport fuels. Electrification of the transport sector increased in 2016 but not at the pace of the power sector. This is primarily because policy support for the transport sector lags behind. There are no direct links between renewable energy and electric vehicles (EVs), but with increasing share of renewables in grid power.

Electrification of the transport sector can create a new market opportunities for renewable energy and integrate renewable energy.

Some challenges still remain

Despite many positive trends in the renewable energy sector, it is not transitioning at a pace that is needed to meet the targets committed in the Paris Accord in December 2015 in COP21. The Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) of the 117 countries combined would increase the global temperature between 2.3 to 3.5 degrees Celsius. Even though the power sector is changing its ways and getting more and more renewable energy in the mix, the other energy-consuming sectors are not keeping up. The investment in renewables fell 30 per cent in developing and emerging countries and 14 per cent in developed world.

Policy support in countries has been mostly focussed on power sector and there is a need for more comprehensive energy policy focusing on low-carbon economy and not just electricity. There is often confusion about ‘energy’ and ‘electricity’ in an economy and it is important to transform the energy sector which includes fuel for cooking, heating, cooling and transport and not just electricity in the country. Christine Lins, executive secretary of REN21, explained in the release, “The world is in a race against time. The single most important thing we could do to reduce CO2 emissions quickly and cost-effectively, is phase out coal and speed up investments in energy efficiency and renewables. Trump’s withdrawal of the US from the Paris Agreement is unfortunate.  But the renewables train has already left the station and those who ignore renewables’ central role in climate mitigation risk being left behind.”     

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  • Wind Energy in Different States:
    As of the end of March 2017 the total installed wind power capacity was 32.17 GW.
    Installed wind capacity by state as of 19 October 2016
    State Total Capacity (MW)
    Tamil Nadu
    7,684.31
    Maharashtra
    4,664.08
    Gujarat
    4,227.31
    Rajasthan
    4,123.35
    Karnataka
    3,082.45
    Madhya Pradesh
    2,288.60
    Andhra Pradesh
    1,866.35
    Telangana
    98.70
    Kerala
    43.50
    Others 4.30
    Total 28,082.95
    Source: Wikipedia
    AP is nowhere compared to Tamil Nadu.
    In fact to avail liberal incentives like Depreciation Wind Turbines were put left and Right in Ramagiri and Kadavakallu based on Wind Data from 4 Masts. The Power production at Ramagiri(Where largest number of Wind Turbines operate) is very low(About 12 lakh Units per MW) compared to about 29 Lakh Units at Muppandal,Near Kanyakumari in Tamil Nadu District.
    NREDCAP in collaboration with C-WET(Now National Institute of Wind Energy) should have initiated Wind Velocity studies in places like Dargam,Sangam,Jonnawada etc. in Nellore District AP.
    Since Winds are moderate in identified Windy areas in AP, it makes sense to initiate Studies to identify Offshore Wind farms across long coast of AP.

    OFFSHORE WIND FARMS IN AP:

    WIND ENERGY HAS TO BE PROMOTED IN A BIG WAY IN AP
    Community wind energy:
    Community wind projects are locally owned by farmers, investors, businesses, schools, utilities, or other public or private entities who utilize wind energy to support and reduce energy costs to the local community. The key feature is that local community members have a significant, direct financial stake in the project beyond land lease payments and tax revenue. Projects may be used for on-site power or to generate wholesale power for sale, usually on a commercial-scale greater than 100 kW.
    Cooperative
    A wind turbine cooperative, also known as a wind energy cooperative, is a jointly owned and democratically controlled enterprise that follows the cooperative model, investing in wind turbines or wind farms. The cooperative model was developed in Denmark. The model has also spread to Germany, the Netherlands and
    Australia, with isolated examples elsewhere . In India Depreciation Benefits are given to only big Industries investing in Renewables. Why not Government give Income tax benefits to Individual tax payers who invest in a WIND FUND(to be created by the Government) and give tax exemption under Section 80 C to start windfarm co-operatives. This way there will be mass participation in Wind Energy.
    NEED FOR OFFSHORE WIND FARMS
    Offshore wind power refers to the construction of wind farms in bodies of water to generate electricity from wind. Better wind speeds are available offshore compared to on land, so offshore wind power’s contribution in terms of electricity supplied is higher. However, offshore wind farms are relatively expensive.
    Economics and benefits
    Offshore
    wind power can help to reduce energy imports, reduce air pollution and
    greenhouse gases (by displacing fossil-fuel power generation), meet renewable
    electricity standards, and create jobs and local business opportunities.
    COST COMPARISON OF ONSHORE AND OFFSHORE WIND FARMS
    Onshore
    Investment
    of about $1.5 million per MW
    Levelized
    cost of 6-7 cents per kWh
    O&M
    – 1-3% of capital costs
    May be built in smaller units
    Offshore
    Investment
    of $2.3 million per MW
    Levelized
    cost of about 10-11 cents per kWh
    Higher
    O&M – 40$ per kW and 0.7 cents per kWh variable
    Large turbines and farms required
    In spite of the higher costs and the uncertainties involved in offshore wind,
    research in this sector has been significant, and the main reason is the
    potential offered by offshore wind turbines, especially in lands close to water .
    At the end of 2011, there were 53 European offshore wind farms in waters off Belgium,
    Denmark, Finland, Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and the
    United Kingdom, with an operating capacity of 3,813 MW, while 5,603 MW is
    under construction
    USA, China, South Korea, Taiwan, France and Japan have ambitious plans to go in for
    offshore wind farms on a massive scale.
    Length of coastline of India including the coastlines of Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal and Lakshwadweep Islands in the Arabian Sea is 7517 km. Length of
    Coastline of Indian mainland is 6100 km.
    Thorough Wind studies have to be carried out along the coast to identify the prospective
    offshore wind farm sites. Based on these studies a Pilot project can be started
    by MNRE which will help as a Demonstration project.
    Accurate wind measurements at the site are the constraint. Many a time wind data is extrapolated to the hub height at sites where the wind turbines are to be erected. In the US in California wind farm developers used to monitor (Anemometers, Anemographs) in the past at the sites where wind turbines to be erected (Now Wind Masts). This gives more or less reliable wind data and hence the turbine output.Unfortunately in some cases Wind Farm developers can't wait for years to measure the wind data(In some cases to avail the tax benefits
    quickly) and hence correlate the nearest wind mast data. That is why there will be variation in the output. Moreover terrain also plays an important role in wind energy production.
    Remote sensing measurement techniques enable measurements to hub height and beyond. There are resource measurement technique using sodar and lidar which need to be adopted in India along with at least 75 meter Wind masts.
    Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore(AP)
    Renewable Energy Expert
    Recipient
    Margaret Noble Foundation Seattle Award in Energy Technology.

    Posted by: Dr.A.Jagadeesh | 7 months ago | Reply
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