Is Narmada water being made to flow in Sabarmati not supplied to city of Ahmedabad? This has furthered the idea of river...
I have been selling glass for commercial buildings talking about light, thermal/solar heat gain etc.etc..but I...
Dear Saxena ji,
Thank you for inquiry.
West facing windows can be a big source of heat, first measure which you...
A TEAEM of researchers from the Banaras
Hindu University in Varanasi, Uttar
Pradesh, has isolated two fungal and
one bacterial strains which are capable
of removing colour and heavy metals
from polluted water. Mycologist R S
Upadhyay and his research-studen( R K
Maurya are striving to develop a water
treatment technology based on the use
of these microbial strains which have
been named RKM-1, RKM-2 and RK&f-3
Varanasi is a major centTC for the
manufacture of sarees (traditional dress
worn by Indian women) and carpets -
industries in which large amounts of
synthetic dyes are used. Effluents com-
ing out from these units are loaded with
synthetic dyes and colours containing
various kinds ef highly toxic heavy
metals such as copper, lead, chromium,
zinc and cadmium. These metals are
known to hamper life processes in
aquatic plants and animals. Besides,
they are carried to other animals and
human beings through the food chain
and drinking water, causing various
diseases as a consequence. Upadhyay is
optimistic about developing a cheap
indigenous technology for Pollution
control in the local units.
Effluents loaded with dyes directly
affect the transparency of water bodies.
Decline in transparency means that
lesser light enters these bodies and there
is a reduction in photosynthetic activity.
Any decline in photosynthesis affects
the entire aquatic system, most pro-
minently its oxygen content. Decrease
primary production of oxygen creates
distortions in the food chain. In extreme
cases, an entire water body may become
The new microbial strains remove
colour as well as heavy metals from polhated water, thereby making it colourless and non-toxic. Laboratory tests
have shown that they are highly effiderlt. RKM-1 and RKM-2 belong to the filamentous group of lungi, which have
fine thread-like filaments on their body.
They reproduce fast by simple cell division and within a short span of time,
they can grow into a thick filamentous
Mat. RKM-3 is a species of pseudomonas
(rod-shaped bacteria generally found in
soil) which grows very fast. It is not yet
known how these fungi mike the water
clean. Fungi have several mechanisms
which help them actively accumulate
different kinds of pollutants. Upadhyay
and Maurya are trying to explore what
mechanisms are being utilised by these
One possible method is that metals
are being adsorbed through the wails of
the fungi] cells. This process of active
bioaccumulation could help the fungi
collect large amounts of heavy metals in
layers of their cell wails. For decomposition of dyes, they may be using the peroxiclase group of enzymes which are strong
oxidising agents. Upadhyay believes that
the fungal strains oxidise dyes with the
help of these enzymes and make the water
colourless. If the two researchers succeed
in their efforts, Varanasi's waters will
never be the same again.