Good job bringing this to light. People won't realise how huge the problem is and municipalities are woefully ill equipped to...
Agreed; mining can never be sustainable, but then how do you get the metals to make all the things you need in the course of...
Very good piece.
RESEARCHERS from the Kaiser
Permanente Medical Center in A
Oakland, California, have linked
smoking with facial wrinkling
among Whites and say that
women may be more susceptible S,
than men (American Journal of
Public Health, Vol 85, No 1).
The research team led by 00
Virginia L Ernster, decided on
Whites-only as the African-
American and Asian skins are relatively less prone to wrinkling.
The results from their study
based on 1136 subjects indicate
that smokers have a 2 to threefold
risk of developing facial wrinkling
compared to non-smokers. The
exception to this rule being men a
aged 60-69 years. Earlier studies
have also established the link
between smoking and facial wrinkling
but they handled relatively small population samples.
The Oakland study revealed that the
wrinkling risk was greater for women
smokers compared to men. The risk of
developing wrinkles appeared to
increase after 10 pack-years (a pack-year
is the number of cigarette packs consumed daily multiplied by years
smoked) of smoking in women as compared to 20 pack-years in men. Also, the
former male smokers faced no increased
risk whereas it was twofold for women.
smokers could be due to the drying or
irritating effect of the smoke on the skin.
Or, it could be a result of vascular or
connective tissue damage in the skin
caused by the 'absorption of cigarette
smoke. Earlier studies have shown that
smoking acutely decreases the blood
flow in the skin.
The Oakland study being the largest
of its kind, researchers hope that their
results would encourage young people
to quit smoking. They say that they
would like the wrinkling effect of smoking printed on cigarette packs as a warning to smokers.