Is Narmada water being made to flow in Sabarmati not supplied to city of Ahmedabad? This has furthered the idea of river...
I have been selling glass for commercial buildings talking about light, thermal/solar heat gain etc.etc..but I...
Dear Saxena ji,
Thank you for inquiry.
West facing windows can be a big source of heat, first measure which you...
Domestic sewage, industrial sludge and agricultural wastes pollute almost all surface water in the country. Filtration and chlorination are often used to clean it up for domestic utilisation. However, most areas in the country lack such facilities and many believe that well water from underground aquifers is a good source of potable water. Almost all rural inhabitations in the country are now provided with water drawn from borewells -- in fact, such water sources cater to a large percentage of domestic requirements even in cities and towns.
However, even borewell water has contamination problems. Recent research by several agencies has shown that microbes contaminate 30 per cent of the borewells in villages and 60 per cent of such wells in towns and cities in Mysore district, Karnataka. Ajay Memorial Drinking Water Foundation(ajmdwf), Mysore was one of the agencies involved in the research. After these studies, this foundation advised people to boil borewell water before consumption. But people in the district rejected ajmdwf's advise as impracticable: they could not afford the extra costs required for boiling the water.
This forced the foundation to search for other alternatives. Copper vessels have been traditionally used to store water; the foundation decided to check if this age-old method could purify water. Copper vessels of various sizes were used to hold water ranging from 0.25 litres (l) to 20 l. There was some success, but the vessels failed to purify large volumes of water within 24 hours.
The researchers did not give up. They decided to use rectangular sheets of domestic grade copper for their experiments. The sheets were dipped into buckets of water. But there was little success: the water could not be purified within 24 hours. Moreover, domestic grade copper had many impurities: it was mixed with toxic metals such as zinc and lead.
The researchers then decided to use the electrolyte variety of copper sheets -- these are used for industrial purposes. Sheets of various sizes were dipped into water-filled buckets. Water quantity was also changed. The experiments began in 2001 and finally in August 2004, there was success. Electrolyte grade copper sheets 61 cm long and 17.5 cm wide was found to purify 10 l water in 24 hours. 41 cm long and 12 cm wide copper sheets purified 5 l of water in a day, while 61 cm long and 35 cm wide sheets cleaned up 20 l of water in the same time.
Care should also be taken to ensure that the water is purified in food grade stainless steel or polyvinyl chloride containers. Aluminum vessels should be strictly avoided. Borewell waters have high salt content and they form white crusts in the containers. These can be easily removed with a mixture of concentrated acetic acid and hydrochloric acid.
A Ramalingam is the President of Ajay Memorial Drinking Water Foundation, Mysore, Karnataka