While it has long been known that volcanic eruptions can produce vigorous lightning, there are few direct observations of the phenomena, the paper says. Following the initial eruptions of January 11 and January 13, 2006, two of which produced lightning, two electromagnetic lightning detectors were set up.
Later, the volcano erupted again, with the first of four eruptions producing a 'spectacular lightning sequence', say the researchers.
The scientists said social behaviour is extremely rare in arachnids, a class that includes spiders, amblypygids, scorpions and mites. Only 76 species of the more than 93,000 known arachnid species have been observed living in social groups.
The researchers' findings mark the first time social behaviour has been reported in amblypygids. The groups are constantly exploring one another and interacting with their siblings, said a researcher.
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