Electric charges are known to come in integral multiples of the smallest charge called electron. But in certain cases, these charges are also found in fractional units. Scientists in Israel and France have separately confirmed the quantum Hall effect. According to the law, when electrons are restricted to flow in an ultra-thin layer of a solid at very low temperatures and high magnetic fields, they exhibit this strange behaviour. It is the first time when the effect has been experimentally verified ( Physical Review Letters , Vol 79, September 29, 1997).
We are a voice to you; you have been a support to us. Together we build journalism that is independent, credible and fearless. You can further help us by making a donation. This will mean a lot for our ability to bring you news, perspectives and analysis from the ground so that we can make change together.
Comments are moderated and will be published only after the site moderator’s approval. Please use a genuine email ID and provide your name. Selected comments may also be used in the ‘Letters’ section of the Down To Earth print edition.