Risk factors for developing type two diabetes include being overweight, being physically inactive, having a poor diet, high blood pressure and family history of type two diabetes
In Australia, more than 1.1 million people currently have type two diabetes.
A host of potential complications associated with the disease mean a 45-year-old diagnosed with type two diabetes will live on average six years less than someone without type two diabetes.
This week, we published a report bringing together the latest evidence on the health consequences of type two diabetes.
Aside from demonstrating the complications we know well — like the link between diabetes and heart disease risk — our report highlights some newer evidence that suggests type two diabetes is associated with an increased risk of cancer and dementia.
Common complications of type two diabetes
Type two diabetes, which typically develops after the age of 40, is usually due to a combination of the pancreas failing to produce enough of the hormone insulin and the cells in the body failing to adequately respond to insulin.
Since insulin is the key regulator of blood glucose (sugar), this causes a rise in the blood sugar levels.
People with type two diabetes are about twice as likely to develop heart disease than people without type two diabetes.
While heart attacks, due to blockages in the coronary arteries, are perhaps the better recognised form of heart disease, heart failure, where the heart muscle is unable to pump enough blood around the body, is becoming more common, especially in people with type two diabetes.
This is due to a number of factors, including better treatment and prevention of heart attacks, which has allowed more people to survive long enough to develop heart failure.
People with type two diabetes are up to eight times more likely to develop heart failure compared to those without diabetes.
But beyond these common and familiar complications of diabetes, there’s mounting evidence to suggest type two diabetes increases the risk of other diseases.
Emerging complications of type two diabetes
People with type two diabetes are approximately two times more likely to develop pancreatic, endometrial and liver cancer, have a 30 per cent higher chance of getting bowel cancer and a 20 per cent increased risk of breast cancer.
Increased cancer risk is of particular concern for the growing number of people under 40 living with type two diabetes. In Australia, this group saw a significant increase in deaths from cancer between 2000 and 2011.
Dementia, too, is a recently recognised complication of type two diabetes. A meta-analysis involving data from two million people showed people with type two diabetes have a 60 per cent greater risk of developing dementia compared to those without diabetes.
Why the increased risk?
It’s important to acknowledge the studies we looked at are observational and can’t tell us diabetes necessarily caused these conditions. But they do suggest having diabetes is associated with an increased risk.
The two leading theories for why cancer risk is increased in people with type two diabetes relate to glucose and insulin.
Many types of cancer cells use glucose as a key fuel, so the more glucose in the blood, potentially, the more rapidly cancer will grow.
Alternatively, insulin can promote the growth of cells. And since in the early stages of type two diabetes insulin levels are elevated, this might also promote the development of cancer.
There are several possible explanations for the link between diabetes and dementia. First, strokes are more common in people with type two diabetes, and both major and repeated mini-strokes can lead to dementia.
Second, diabetes affects the structure and function of the smallest blood vessels throughout the body (the capillaries), including in the brain. This may impair the delivery of nutrients to a person’s brain cells.
Third, high glucose levels and other metabolic disturbances associated with diabetes may, over time, directly affect the way certain types of brain cells function.
Room for improvement
Despite well-established recommendations for the management of type two diabetes, such as guidelines for medication use, healthy diet and regular physical activity, there remains a significant gap between the evidence and what happens in practice.
A study from the US showed only one in four patients with type two diabetes met all the recommended targets for healthy levels of glucose, cholesterol and blood pressure.
Australian data has shown having diabetes is associated with 14 per cent increased likelihood of discontinuing cholesterol medication after one year.
In our report, we showed increasing the use of a range of effective medications would prevent many hundreds of people with diabetes developing heart disease, strokes and kidney failure each year.
With the burden of diabetes complications in our community casting such a large shadow in terms of death rates, disability and impact on the health system, we need greater education and support for people with living diabetes, as well as health professionals treating the condition.
For people with type two diabetes, close monitoring for other diseases such as cancer through screening programs is particularly important.
And alongside managing their blood sugar levels, it’s essential Australians with type two diabetes are supported to keep risk factors for complications, such as blood pressure and cholesterol, at healthy levels.
A healthy diet and regular physical activity is a good place to start.
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