The Swachh Bharat Mission Urban completes three years on October 2, 2017, but has the mission gone beyond brooms and sticks? How far country has fared in the cleanup act?
SBM-U has set an objective to achieve Clean India by October 2, 2019. In the urban areas, the SBM focuses on constructing individual toilets, community toilets and solid waste management (SWM). While the first two years of the SBM-U was focused on bringing about necessary regulatory and policy changes to facilitate the scientific processing of waste, in the third year, the mission shifted its focus on bringing about behaviour change among citizens and encouraging them to segregate waste at source. In order to encourage cities to be a part of this initiative, various schemes, campaigns and awards have been launched such as Swachhata Hi Seva, Swachh Survekshan, Segregation at Source campaign, City Compost Policy, Swachhata Pakhwada and Swachhagrahi. In a sign of positive shift, citizens are participating and getting involved in most of these schemes.
|Campaigns for SWM on waste
||Year of Launch
||Objective and progress
||To foster a healthy competition among cities for improving cleanliness standards, the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA) started the “Swachh Survekshan” survey which ranks cities on cleanliness and other aspects of urban sanitation. In 2015-16, 73 cities across the country were ranked. In 2016-2017, 434 towns and cities of India were ranked on SWM and sanitation. The 2017-18 survey shall cover 4,041 statutory towns and cities.
||Ranking system has pushed cities to take better initiatives towards segregation and waste management.
|Segregation at source campaign
||4,041 statutory towns and cities are part of this campaign which pushes for segregation at source.
||No substantial progress made
|City Compost Policy
||The policy wants to ensure that all organic solid waste generated in cities is converted into compost or biogas by October 2019 by providing subsidy. Fertiliser companies were asked to co-market compost with chemical fertilisers.
||No substantial progress made
||The focus is on involving people and bringing about behavioural and attitudinal change through innovative activities so that the ultimate goals of the SBM could be achieved and sustained. Under the Pakhwada programme, between October 1-15, 2017, different cities and ULBs will undertake awareness programmes and campaigns, urging residents, commercial centres, hospitals and institutes to ensure cleanliness and hygiene.
|Swachhata Hi Seva Campaign
||It seeks to mobilise people to come out and get directly involved with the Swachh Bharat Mission for sanitation to contribute to Mahatma Gandhi's dream of a Clean India.
Report card on SWM
1. Segregation at source
In the first two years, SBM did not focus much on collection of segregated waste from households and commercials spaces. Even the systems to support segregation were not created in most of the cities. The third year of the mission started the propagation for segregation at source on June 5, 2017. The MoHUA directed all 4,041 statutory towns and cities to adopt source segregation as a mass movement, where every household and every waste generator starts segregating their waste into two bins–green and blue. However, its implementation in the last four months has been bleak.
2. Door-to-door collection
The door-to-door collection efficiency has increased from 48 per cent last year to 53 per cent this year. The data listed on the Swachh Bharat Mission’s official website shows that all wards in the states and union territories (UTs) of Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, Goa, Meghalaya, Nagaland and Puducherry are covered under 100 per cent door-to-door collection. However, the information for some cities is inaccurate. For instance, while the data made available by Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD) shows that the city has 280 wards, SBM claims that 294 wards of Delhi are covered under door-to-door collection, showing inconsistency in the data.
In the last three years, the sanitation workers have refused to collect waste door to door and have gone on strikes on issues related to non-payment of salaries and contractor-related concerns in many cities such as Delhi, Chandigarh and Bengaluru. Also, in many cities, the door-to-door collection has failed to integrate the informal sector.
The waste processing capacity has jumped from 18 per cent in 2016-17 to 25.3 per cent in 2017-18. As reported in the website, 100 per cent of the waste is being processed in Chandigarh. However, in Chandigarh, the waste management plant managed by Jaypee has been under public litigation and is barely operational. All the 300 tonnes of waste from the city is being dumped at Dadumajra on most days of the month. No processing system has been put in place for management of the waste in Jharkhand, Daman & Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli. In 11 states (Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Chhattisgarh, Haryana, Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab, Maharashtra, Mizoram, Odisha, Uttarakhand and West Bengal), less than 10 per cent of the waste is being processed.
4. Funds for SWM under SBM-U
In 2015-16, 25 per cent of the total money released was for solid waste management and 70% for toilet construction; in 2016-17, 45 per cent of the money released was for solid waste management and 45 per cent for toilet construction. The estimated cost of implementation of SBM (Urban) based on unit and per capita costs for its various components is Rs 62,009 crore, out of which, the budget for SWM was set to be Rs 7,365.79 crore. Of the budget set for SWM, only 28.8 per cent of the funds have been released in the last three years. This means, almost 71 per cent money is still left to be used in SWM for the next two years. As per the expenditure reported by SBM, northeastern states of Assam and Tripura, along with Dadra & Nagar Haveli and Daman & Diu have not received any funds under SBM till date.
The policy on promotion of city compost dictates that subsidy is to be provided by the Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilisers and the budget allotted to it is just Rs 15 crore, whereas for the construction and revival of composting plant, or any other waste project, viability gap funding of 35 per cent is being provided under SBM.
|Yearly Fund Dissemination for SWM under SBM (Till August 2017)
||Rs (in crore)
|2017-18 (as of August 2017)
|Total funds given for SWM under SBM (as on Sep 29)
5. Waste to Energy or Waste of Energy under SBM?
On August 4, the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) claimed in the parliament that five projects of 66.4 MW are operational and generating power from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW). These projects, located in Solapur (Maharashtra), Jabalpur (Madhya Pradesh and New Delhi, are able to process about 4,516 tonnes of MSW per day. Under Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM), 48 MSW-based plants with cumulative installed capacity of 412.5 MW are under construction. However, the data in different government reports for the installed, under construction, under tendering and operational capacities varies.
The SBM website claims that the current installed capacity for waste-to-energy (WTE) plants in India is 88.4 MW, which includes Rochem (10 MW) Plant in Pune and the Karimnagar (12 MW) plant in Telangana. While Rochem has stopped operating since 2012, the one in Kairmnagar is also closed since 2009.
Recently, NITI Aayog, in its three-year agenda, has proposed that in order to push for sustainable processing, WTE plants need to be scaled up from the current capacity to 511 MW by 2019. It also goes on to say that composting/ biomethanisation are unsustainable practices. This flags off another major concern and shows incoherence with SBM guidelines that support decentralised mechanisms for waste management.
While the focus of the government should be on ensuring that maximum waste in the country is processed, the increased tax burden under the Goods and Service Tax (GST) regime on the recycling and composting industry is not aligned with this 'noble' mission. The increased tax slabs for recyclables is killing the recycling sector. The composting machines are now attracting 12 per cent tax against the 8 per cent previously. While on one hand the government is trying to promote city compost, imposing 5 per cent GST will have a negative impact on its production and promotion. Solid waste management has received much-needed attention through SBM, but if sustainable practices are not adopted at an accelerated rate, the mishaps like Ghazipur and Deonar will frequently repeat.
The focus for the remaining two years should be on segregation, creating systems to support segregation, sustainable processing and minimal land use for waste disposal.
|Compost Policy under SBM
The Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA) under Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) has set an ambitious target of ensuring that by October 2019, all organic solid waste generated in cities is converted into compost or biogas. With the notification of the ‘Policy on Promotion of City Compost’ on February 10, 2016 after its approval in the cabinet, it was expected that the production units and the production of compost itself would go up, but the reality is far from expectation.
The fixed amount of Rs 1,500/tonne for scaling up production and consumption of the compost under the policy did not turn out to be a game changer for promoting composting market in the country.
As per figures provided earlier in 2016 by the MoHUA to the Standing Committee under the 16th Lok Sabha on fertilisers, India’s total installed capacity of city compost plant is 710,000 tonnes and estimated production is 150,000 tonnes per year. According to a MoHUA press release in January 2017, there are 95 functional/sub-optimal compost plants in the country with a production capacity of 2.36 million tonnes/annum while the total production of city compost from these plants is approximately 330,000 tonnes/annum.
Additionally, there are 313 plants under construction/upgradation/revival with a capacity of 2.31 million tonnes/annum. Cumulatively, taking into consideration both functional and under construction compost plants, the production capacity is set to reach 4.67 million tonnes/ annum by March 2018. There is no doubt that fancy advertisements and promotions of ‘Compost Banao, Compost Apnao’ under SBM have caught nation’s attention but the lack of appropriate market and failed implementation of the Policy on Promotion of City Compost is resulting in unpopularity of this practice.
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