Wildlife & Biodiversity

COP15: Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework adopted

Countries have their work cut out till 2030

By Vibha Varshney
Published: Monday 19 December 2022
Photo: @CBD_COP15 / Twitter

The 15th Conference of Parties (COP15) to the UN Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) adopted the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF) December 19, 2022. The framework has 23 targets that the world needs to achieve by 2030.

The targets are ambitious, considering that biodiversity is in a poor state. In 2020, the world had failed to meet the last set of targets, the Aichi Targets. Countries would need to ensure success this time round. 

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, adoption of the new targets is already delayed by two years leaving lesser time for the countries to achieve the targets. 

COP15 had representatives of 188 governments on site and agreed on the framework that hopes to arrest the ongoing loss of terrestrial and marine biodiversity.

Clear indicators to measure progress have been set to avoid the failure as seen in the Aichi Targets. 

The countries will monitor and report every five years or less on a large set of indicators related to progress. The CBD will combine national information submitted by late February 2026 and late June 2029 into global trend and progress reports.

“This agreement means people around the world can hope for real progress to halt biodiversity loss and protect and restore our lands and seas in a way that safeguards our planet and respects the rights of indigenous peoples and local communities,” said Achim Steiner, UN Development Programme Administrator. 

The Global Environment Facility has been requested to establish a Special Trust Fund to support the implementation of the Global Biodiversity Framework (“GBF Fund”). This is to ensure successful implementation.

Delegates have agreed to establish within the GBF a multilateral fund for the equitable sharing of benefits between providers and users of digital sequence information on genetic resources (DSI), to be finalised at COP16 in Türkiye in 2024.

“The agreement reached today in Montreal is a significant breakthrough for biodiversity. It reflects never-before-seen recognition from countries at all income levels that biodiversity loss must be stopped through high-ambition changes to our society’s relationship with nature and the way our global economy operates,” said Carlos Manuel Rodriguez, chief executive and chairperson of the Global Environment Facility.

“The package is by no means flawless but this is not the end,” said Li Shuo, global policy advisor, Greenpeace China.

“By the next CBD COP in 2024, governments have a lot of homework to turn these agreed goals into actions at home. And have no doubt that the growing movement for nature protection, the charities, non-profits and indigenous peoples will keep governments to these promises,” Shuo added.

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