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  • Excellent. We can learn New


    Excellent.
    We can learn New ways of Biofuel/Biogas for power from Mexico.
    Companies all over the world are investing so much looking for a perfect crop but they see the leave and not the wood! Many existing crops can be managed and adopted for bioenergy production on marginal regions with potential of expansion in millions of hectares of several countries suffering from energy shortages and foreign dependency. Agave and Opuntia being care-free growth CAM plants offer promise.
    Agaves are perennial plants that produce large leaves in a rosette form. Their size and lifespan vary enormously between species, from 20 to 200cm in height and between 8 and 30 years old. Cultivated agaves benefit from adequate water from rain, but most are well adapted to arid conditions, and tolerate high temperatures and water shortages. This means they can be grown on land that would not be suitable for other purposes, and where soils are easily degraded by disturbance. Agave competitive advantages Thrives on dry land/marginal land. Most efficient use of soil, water and light. Massive production. Year-around harvesting. Very high yields with very low or no inputs Very high quality biomass and sugars Very low cost of production. Not a commodity, so prices are not volatile Very versatile: biofuels, bioproducts, chemicals World-wide geographical distribution Enhanced varieties are ready.
    Considered by the Aztecs and Mayans as a gift from the Gods, Agave has long been used as a food source, its fibres turned into fabric and its liquid fermented into Mescal/Tequila. Now some clever bods from Oxford University have discovered that the ethanol, derived from the fructose rich plants, is a rich alternative to current bio-fuels such as corn. Unlike corn, Agave grows in a deserts and marginalised areas ÔÇô as such it doesnÔÇÖt interfere with food crops. Agave ÔÇô Gift from the Gods. Experts agree that agave, a plant used in the production of tequila, can be a sustainable biofuel source because it would not compete with food crops or threaten water supply. A new report from the Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment identifies significant advantages of using agave plants, such as those used in the production of tequila and sisal, to derive biofuels. Unlike other biofuel feedstocks, agave has the potential to grow on marginal agricultural land and so would have limited impact on global food production and biodiversity.

    Fourteen independent studies have concluded that the yields from two species of agave greatly exceeded to yields of corn, soybeans, sorghum and other feedstocks. More encouraging, there are additional species believed to be even more productive. Agave is an appealing feedstock because it is economically and environmentally sustainable. People in Chile are talking; they are getting 1,800 tons of green biomass per hector per year. In Mexico about 600 tons, but if we can rise that to 1,000 tons per hector per year, we could produce that to generate electricity via bio digester, and the cost of producing, generating electricity would be around $0.07 per kilowatt hour which is comparable to the price of electricity generated burning coal, fossil coal. So this is very important because over 5 billion tons of coal are burnt(Source:Bioenergy crops).


    Countries like India and China have great assets - Human Resources especially Youth.
    I have a novel scheme to provide nationwide employment and bringing waste land under cultivation.
    There are millions of hectares of wastelands in the country. Can't we put it to good use? There are care-free growth plants, regenerative and CAM like Agave and Opuntia which can be put to many uses especially for Biofuel/biogas power. Mexico is pioneer in this. A scheme YOUTH ECONOMIC ZONES(YEZ) on the lines of SEZ can be created where in unemployed youth trained in farming can each be allotted 10 acres each on lease basis. 10 such youth can form a co-operative. They can grow Fast growing ,care-free growth plants like Agave and Opuntia. From the output Biofuel/biogas power units can be set up at local level.

    Here are the many uses of Agave and Opuntia:
    For decentralised power generation as well as cooking, biogas is the best option.
    Biogas power from care-free growth ,regenerative CAM plants can be obtained on massive scale. These plants can be cultivated in waste lands. Being CAM plants they act as Carbon Sink. Crassulacean acid metabolism, also known as CAM photosynthesis,is a carbon fixation pathway that evolved in some plants as an adaptation to arid conditions.[ In a plant using full CAM, the stomata in the leaves remain shut during the day to reduce evapotranspiration, but open at night to collect carbon dioxide (CO2). The CO 2 is stored as the four-carbon acidmalate, and then used during photosynthesis during the day. The pre-collected CO 2 is concentrated around the enzymeRuBisCO, increasing photosynthetic efficiency. Mexico is pioneer in Biogas/Biofuel production from Agave/Opuntia.

    Every village can be provided a Big Biogas plant and gas supplied through pipes to houses.Biogas power plants from KW size to MW size are available commercially.

    The main drawback for wider application of Biofuels is input. There was a big movement for biofuel from Jatropha in India but in reality not much has been achieved. Agave(Americana),Sisal Agave is a multiple use plant which has 10% fermentable sugars and rich in cellulose. The fibre is used in rope making and also for weaving clothes in Philippines under the trade name DIP-DRY. In Brazil a paper factory runs on sisal as input. A Steroid HECOGENIN is extracted from this plant leaves. Since on putrification,it produces methane gas, it can be cut and used as input in biogas plants. Also in Kenya and Lesotho dried pieces of Agave are mixed with concrete since it has fibres which act as binding. Here is an excellent analysis on Agave as a biofuel: Agave shows potential as biofuel feedstock, Checkbiotech, By Anna Austin, February 11, 2010: 'Mounting interest in agave as a biofuel feedstock could jump-start the Mexican biofuels industry, according to agave expert Arturo Valez Jimenez.

    Agave thrives in Mexico and is traditionally used to produce liquors such as tequila. It has a rosette of thick fleshy leaves, each of which usually end in a sharp point with a spiny margin. Commonly mistaken for cacti, the agave plant is actually closely related to the lily and amaryllis families. The plants use water and soil more efficiently than any other plant or tree in the world, Arturo said. 'This is a scientific factthey don't require watering or fertilizing and they can absorb carbon dioxide during the night,' he said. The plants annually produce up to 500 metric tons of biomass per hectare, he added. Agave fibers contain 65 percent to 78 percent cellulose, according to Jimenez. 'With new technology, it is possible to breakdown over 90 percent of the cellulose and hemicelluloses structures, which will increase ethanol and other liquid biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass drastically,' he said. 'Mascoma is assessing such technology.' Another plant of great use is OPUNTIA for biogas production. The cultivation of nopal((OPUNTIA FICUS-INDICA), a type of cactus, is one of the most important in Mexico. According to Rodrigo Morales, Chilean engineer, Wayland biomass, installed on Mexican soil, 'allows you to generate inexhaustible clean energy.' Through the production of biogas, it can serve as a raw material more efficiently, by example and by comparison with jatropha.

    Wayland Morales, head of Elqui Global Energy argues that 'an acre of cactus produces 43 200 m3 of biogas or the equivalent in energy terms to 25,000 liters of diesel.' With the same land planted with jatropha, he says, it will produce 3,000 liters of biodiesel. Another of the peculiarities of the nopal is biogas which is the same molecule of natural gas, but its production does not require machines or devices of high complexity. Also, unlike natural gas, contains primarily methane (75%), carbon dioxide (24%) and other minor gases (1%), 'so it has advantages from the technical point of view since it has the same capacity heat but is cleaner, 'he says, and as sum datum its calorific value is 7,000 kcal/m3. Biogas power generators from KW to MW size are available from China and Vietnam. Agave and Opuntia can be grown on a massive scale in wastelands in developing countries.

    The cultivation of nopal((OPUNTIA FICUS-INDICA), a type of cactus, is one of the most important in Mexico. According to Rodrigo Morales, Chilean engineer, Wayland biomass, installed on Mexican soil, ÔÇ£allows you to generate inexhaustible clean energy.ÔÇØ Through the production of biogas, it can serve as a raw material more efficiently, by example and by comparison with jatropha.

    Wayland Morales, head of Elqui Global Energy argues that ÔÇ£an acre of cactus produces 43200 m3 of biogas or the equivalent in energy terms to 25,000 liters of diesel.ÔÇØ
    With the same land planted with jatropha, he says, it will produce 3,000 liters of biodiesel.
    Another of the peculiarities of the nopal is biogas which is the same molecule of natural gas, but its production does not require machines or devices of high complexity. Also, unlike natural gas, contains primarily methane (75%), carbon dioxide (24%) and other minor gases (1%), ÔÇ£so it has advantages from the technical point of view since it has the same capacity heat but is cleaner, ÔÇ£he says, and as sum datum its calorific value is 7,000 kcal/m3.
    Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore(AP),India

    Posted by: Anonymous | 4 years ago | Reply
  • ROFR enables Chenchu PVTGs to

    ROFR enables Chenchu PVTGs to continue their possession of water bodies for fishing
    Nallamala forest in the midst of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh states is habitat of PVTG Chenchus. The defeated kings used to take shelter in these forests. During their stay, tanks were excavated, temples were built, and lands were brought under cultivation. During the British rule the forts were demolished as they were shelters of rebels.
    In the 100000 square kilometer reserve forest in Nallamala, 3500 sqkms is wildlife sanctuary and tiger reserve. In the Mahaboobnagar District part of Nallamala 70 habitations of Chenchus are covered by VSchedule of the Indian Constitution protecting rights of tribes on natural resources.
    Rasool tank popularly called as Rushula cheruvu (tank of seers) is the biggest one in the above Chenchu habilitations. In 1992 the Minister of Fisheries requested the forest Minister to allow commercial fishing of a non tribal fisher folk society in the tank. SAKTI, NGO working with the tribes , expanded its activities to this forest area, came to know about this fishing , which is against both the laws of tribal and wildlife protection .Responding to the representation of SAKTI, Commissioner of Tribal Welfare instructed the District administration to protect the rights of Chenchus evicting the fisher folk. As there was no response, SAKTI supported Chenchus to approach High Court, which directed the Govt not to allow any other community , the Chenchus picked up courage, took possession of tank for fishing. But the Court in 2007 closed the case observing that the District Collector is the authority under Wildlife protection act to decide the rights.
    The Chenchus without giving up their possession approached Secretary Tribal Welfare. He instructed the District Collector to form fishing cooperative of Chenchus and recognize their rights as soon as the ROFR comes in to force,
    The success of Chenchus in Rushulacheruvu motivated the neighboring habitations Yerrapenta SriRangapur, Appayapalli etc to drive out the illegal occupation of tanks, though police booked cases against them as trespassers .The Chenchus who used to collect the fish by poisoning, now collecting fish without dropping any outside feeds, to increase fish production.
    TV 9 news channel in 2012 honored the Chenchu women of Yerrapenta habitation conferring an award recognizing their courage, in a function chaired by actress activist Nanditadas. But so far the District administration did not recognizes their occupation due to political pressures. However, Chenchus organizing themselves to take possession of the tanks one after another. Please see Chenchu in www.Sakti. In


    Posted by: Anonymous | 4 years ago | Reply
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