At least 1870 independent experts in 127 countries and territories collaborated to prepare an up-to-date analysis on the state of the world's health. Titled ‘Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factors (GBD) 2015’, the study by Lancet reveals the key drivers of ill health, disability and death in countries to help governments and donors identify national health challenges.
The study analysed 249 causes of death, 315 diseases and injuries and 79 risk factors in 195 countries and territories between 1990 and 2015. For the first time, GBD 2015 includes the Socio-Demographic Index (SDI) to measure development. It is based on per capita income, level of education and total fertility rate.
According to the study, life expectancy increased by more than a decade. However, seven out of 10 deaths are now caused due to non-communicable diseases.
- As of 2015, life expectancy for men and women stand at 69 years and 74.8 years respectively.
- There has been a drop in death rates for many communicable diseases, especially in the last 10 years.
- About 70 per cent (40 million) of global deaths (48 million) in 2015 were due to non-communicable diseases, including heart disease, diabetes and chronic kidney disease.
- In 2015, an estimated 1.2 million deaths were due to HIV/AIDS, which is down by 33.5 per cent since 2005. Deaths due to Malaria (730,500) also dropped by 37 per cent since 2005.
The study also points out that that people are spending more years living with illness and disability. Although healthy life expectancy has increased in 191 of 195 countries between 1990 and 2015, it has not increased as much as overall life expectancy, which means people are living more years with illness and disability.
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