The cost of the machine is around Rs 5,000 and one test will cost between Rs 500 and Rs 600
The Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for detecting the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a standard test. The Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur (IIT-Kharagpur) has developed a diagnostic machine that gives as close results as ones produced by an RT-PCR test.
The diagnostic machine ‘COVIRAP’ has been successfully validated for its efficacy in COVID-19 detection by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR).
The machine is portable, low-cost and user-friendly. It can be used in the field, anywhere. “The machine can determine the results of a given sample in less than an hour. It can be set up in the middle of a field and doesn’t require an air-conditioned laboratory. In fact, most of the testing done during the development process was conducted out in the open to test the efficacy of the machine,” Suman Chakraborty, professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT- Kharagpur said.
Chakraborty explained the working mechanism of the machine.
“Each testing kit contains three master mixes which can confirm the presence of the virus. After the RNA sample is collected, it is mixed with master mixes and heated to a certain temperature after being inserted in the pre-programmed machine. This is quite like what is done in other tests as well,” he said.
“However, there is a second heating step which is exclusive to this device and has been patented, which makes the machine unique. After the heating processes are completed, the RNA samples are put on a strip. Whether a patient is COVID-19 positive or negative is dependent on whether lines appear on the strips or not. The strips are then inserted in a cartridge in the machine from where the app uses the camera and inbuilt analytical tool to determine whether the test is positive or negative,” he added.
COVID test results on mobile app
Sensitivity and specificity are the two common parameters used as indicators of efficacy of any diagnostic test. The machine displayed over 93 per cent sensitivity and almost 98 per cent specificity in its results. “The samples of various patients can be tested at once and that makes the machine quite scalable,” Chakraborty said.
The cost of the machine is around Rs 5,000 and one test will cost between Rs 500 and Rs 600. “The whole machine and testing process were developed by the institute itself during the lockdown, nothing has been imported from outside. We are hoping that the per-test cost will decrease once the COVIRAP is mass-produced,” Chakraborty said.
Elaborating on the validation process of ‘COVIRAP’ Diagnostic Test, Dr. Mamta Chawla Sarkar, an Internationally acclaimed virologist who oversaw the patient trials on behalf of ICMR-National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases (NICED) said:
A detailed scrutiny of the testing results has clearly shown that this assay holds the capability of detecting extremely low levels of viral loads that any other method based on similar principles of testing, even those from the most celebrated research groups across the world, could not come up with so far. In practice, this means that very early stages of infection can be detected, thereby isolating the patient and arresting the uncontrolled spread of infection in the community via asymptomatic patients
Speaking about the commercialisation of ‘COVIRAP,’ VK Tewari, director, IIT Kharagpur said, “While the Institute can produce the testing kit up to a certain scale, patent licensing will facilitate commercialisation opportunities for medical technology companies. Any corporate or start-up can approach the Institute for technology licensing and commercial scale of production. The Institute is open to tie-ups, with due measures of protecting the interest of public health amidst the pandemic situation.”
Subsequent financial support to this project was provided by the IIT Foundation, USA, to meet the various expenses in the clinical testing phase. Partial financial support has also been provided from the Common Research and Technology Development Hub on Affordable Healthcare, established by Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), at IIT Kharagpur. (India Science Wire)
We are a voice to you; you have been a support to us. Together we build journalism that is independent, credible and fearless. You can further help us by making a donation. This will mean a lot for our ability to bring you news, perspectives and analysis from the ground so that we can make change together.
Comments are moderated and will be published only after the site moderator’s approval. Please use a genuine email ID and provide your name. Selected comments may also be used in the ‘Letters’ section of the Down To Earth print edition.