Climate Change

COP28 diary (December 6): Santiago Network draft adopted; scientists promote tech to curb methane emissions

Ecuador negotiator talks about challenges to consolidate unified position on Global Goal on Adaptation; Spain minister calls for enlarging base of climate finance contributors 

By Akshit Sangomla, Rohini Krishnamurthy
Published: Thursday 07 December 2023
Photo: UNclimatechange / flickr__

Loss and damage 

The draft text on the Santiago Network has been adopted by the Parties and sent to the Conference of the Parties and Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement (COP / CMA). The collaborative framework aims to connect vulnerable developing countries with technical support and resources to effectively address and manage loss and damage caused by climate change.


Down to Earth spoke to Byron J Moreno, negotiator for Ecuador for adaptation, who has been closely following the negotiations on the Global Goal on Adaptation (GGA). Ecuador is in alignment with the Like-Minded Developing Countries group on GGA. But, Moreno highlighted that consolidating a unified position with the G77 and China Bloc was challenging; it had to be done to present a solid stance. 

“This is due to the vast diversity within the group, leading to ongoing discussions. However, we understand the importance of having a consolidated position on issues where there is consensus,” said Moreno.

Both developing country groups had brought in the financial target option of $400 billion per year of adaptation finance till 2030 into the text and also highlighted that even with doubling of adaptation finance, the gap would be bridged only by 5-10 per cent. 

The draft texts have now been sent to the COP / CMA. 

Fossil fuel phaseout and climate finance

At a European Union (EU) press conference, Wopke Hoekstra, the European Commissioner for Climate Action, said that COP28 should mark the beginning of the end for fossil fuels, calling for a phaseout of all fossil fuels.

Teresa Ribera, third deputy prime minister and minister for the ecological transition and the demographic challenge of Spain, said there needs to be a broader understanding on what climate finance means. She called for the need to enlarge the base of contributors. 

She also highlighted that it was important to assess the willingness of private companies, banks, governments to reduce the impact of climate change, even as countries negotiate the figure for the New Collective Quantified Goal on Climate Finance.


At a side event on Reducing Global Methane Emissions, scientists spoke about the importance of satellite measurements in mapping methane emissions or plumes from different sectors and how they can help improve inventories maintained by countries. Daniel Jacob from Harvard University highlighted that the landfill emissions in the US are underestimated by 51 per cent.

Claire Henly, senior advisor for non-CO2 greenhouse gases, US Special Presidential Envoy for Climate, spoke about new developments in sectors known for methane emissions.

The waste sector has seen the launch of LOW Methane, an initiative to drastically amplify global action to reduce methane emissions from the waste. It aims to deliver at least one million tonnes of annual waste sector methane reductions well before 2030. 

Companies, including Nestle, have joined the Dairy Methane Alliance, a global initiative to accelerate food industry action to drive down  methane emissions from the sector. The enteric fermentation research and development accelerator (globally coordinated research effort into livestock methane reduction) has received $200 million mitigation funding.

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